What does it mean for a Linux distribution to be “fresh”?

I recently had a discussion with LuboŇ° Kocman of openSUSE about how distros can monitor their “freshness”. In other words: how close is a distro to upstream? From our perspectives, it’s helpful to know which packages are significantly behind their upstreams. These packages represent areas that might need attention, whether that be a gentle nudge to the maintainer or recruiting additional volunteers from the community.

The challenge is that freshness can mean different things. The Repology project monitors a large number of distributions and upstreams to report on the status. But simply comparing the upstream version number to the packaged version number ignores a lot of very important context.

Updating to the latest upstream version as soon as it comes out is the most obvious definition of “fresh”, but it’s not always the best. Rolling releases (and their users) probably want that. In Fedora, policy is to not do “major updates” within a release. Many other release-oriented distributions have a similar policy, with varying degrees of “major”. Enterprise distributions add another wrinkle: they’ll backport security fixes (and sometimes key features), so the difference in version number doesn’t necessarily tell you what’s missing.

Of course, the upstream’s version number doesn’t necessarily tell you much. Semantic versioning is great, but not everyone uses it. And not everyone that uses it uses it well. If a distribution has version 1.4 and upstream released 1.5, is that a lack of freshness or an intentional decision to avoid mid-release compatibility changes?

I don’t have a good answer. This is a hard problem to solve. Something like Repology may be the best we can do with reasonable effort. But I’d love to have a more accurate view of how fresh Fedora packages are within the bounds of policy.

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